عادت به مطالعه آزاد
در این اکسیر می خواهیم فعالیت Extensive Reading یا عادت به مطالعه آزاد در زبان انگلیسی را به شما توضیح بدهیم اما قبل از اینکه شروع کنیم، می خواهیم راجع به انواع و اقسام یادگیری با شما صحبت کنیم. تفاوتی ندارد که چه علمی را می خواهید یاد بگیرید. ریاضی باشد یا زبان انگلیسی، فلسفه باشد یا اینکه بخواهید یاد بگیرید چطور رانندگی کنید. برای یاد گرفتن دو راه دارید.
یکی از راه های یادگیری این است که مطالعه کنید علم مورد نظرتان چه بخش ها، چه اجزا و چه مفاهیمی دارد و چطور اجرا می شود. این حالت، چیزی است که در حال حاضر دارد در ایران اتفاق میفتد. در مدرسه و دانشگاه ما همیشه مطالعه می کنیم که برای مثال زبان انگلیسی یک سری لغت، گرامر، لیسنینگ و … دارد. لغات را حفظ می کنیم گرامر را می خوانیم و … به این حالت Active learning گفته می شود.
اما یادگیری به شکلی دیگر نیز امکان پذیر است! این حالت Passive learning یا یادگیری مجهول نام دارد. در Passive learning ما مطالعه نمی کنیم یا لغت حفظ نمی کنیم. پس چه کار می کنیم؟ در این حالت فقط خودمان را در معرض زبان انگلیسی قرار می دهیم. در واقع Exposure داریم. با در معرض قرار گرفتن، نیازی نداریم که لغت و گرامر بخوانیم و در رابطه با آن سوال بپرسیم بلکه فقط خودمان را در فضای Material انگلیسی می دهیم.
Active learning یا Passive learning؟
به نظر شما Active learning بهتر است یا Passive learning؟ اگر Active learning یک واحد موثر باشد و Passive learning هم یک واحد موثر باشد، ترکیب1 به علاوه1 در اینجا به ما 2 نمی دهد، بلکه چهار می دهد. پس بهترین کار برای یادگیری یک علم این است که Active وPassive را با همدیگر ترکیب کنیم. یعنی هم مطالعه کنیم که زبان چه بخش هایی دارد و هم خودمان را در معرض Material انگلیسی قرار بدهیم و Expose کنیم. Exposure داشتن یا فعالیت Extensive، معمولا برای یادگیری زبان از طریق لیسنینگ و ریدینگ اتفاق میفتد.
در این اکسیر می خواهیم راجع به Extensive Reading باهم صحبت کنیم. اما قبل از اینکه شروع کنیم، از شما چند سوال داریم!
در اینجا یک پرسشنامه ریدینگ برای شما آورده شده است. به این سوالات دقت کنید:
- Do you like reading?
- What about your parents and friends?
- How often do you read?
- What do you usually read?
- Do you have a favorite book or writer?
- Do you read in English? If so, what do you read in English?
این سوالات را از خودتان پرسیده و به جواب آن ها فکر کنید. سعی کنید در صورت امکان با یک شخص دیگر در خصوص این موضوعات Discuss کنید. ما قصد داریم بدانیم آیا شما عادت به Extensive Reading یا عادت به مطالعه آزاد برای لذت بردن دارید؟ به فعالیت عادت به مطالعه آزاد Pleasure reading هم گفته می شود.
If you love to read and read a lot, you are one the best readers in the world.
Extensive Reading یا عادت به مطالعه آزاد چیست؟
عادت به مطالعه آزاد یعنی شما در هر فرصتی تعداد زیادی محتوای Reading مثل کتاب، مجله، روزنامه و … بخوانید. کتاب هایی را بخوانید که به آن ها علاقه دارید. Extensive Reading یعنی زمانی که شما خودتان را درمعرض خواندن قرار می دهید. برای مثال زمانی که به خواندن روزنامه می پردازید و از خواندن آن لذت هم می برید. بعضی قسمت ها را سریع تر و برخی قسمت ها را آرام تر می خوانید. ضمنا قرار نیست کسی از شما سوالی بپرسد و مثلا از شما امتحانی گرفته شود.
Extensive Reading برای چه مهم است؟ چرا باید عادت به مطالعه آزاد داشته باشیم؟
Extensive Reading کمک می کند سریع تر بخوانیم، زمان بیشتری ذخیره کنیم، زبان انگلیسی را بهتر متوجه شویم، خودمان را سرگرم کنیم، اطلاعات عمومی مان را افزایش بدهیم (مخصوصا درباره ی contemporary topics یعنی موضوعات دنیای معاصر) و Vocabulary و گرامر انگلیسی مان را بهتر کنیم.
در عادت به مطالعه آزاد چون ورودی زیادی دریافت کرده ایم در نتیجه می توانیم بهتر صحبت کرده و بهتر بنویسیم یعنی خروجی یا Production بهتری داشته باشیم.
Fictional و Nonfictional در Extensive Reading در عادت به مطالعه آزاد
برخی متن هایی که در Extensive Reading می خوانید Fictional است و برخی Nonfictional است. Fiction یعنی داستان یا اطلاعاتی که واقعی نیست بلکه تخیلی است و نویسنده یک سری آدم و اتفاقات را از ذهن خود با توجه به خلاقیتش خلق می کند و می نویسد. خواندن یک متن Fiction به ما کمک می کند مفهوم و ایده ای را که نویسنده تلاش دارد به ما انتقال بدهد، یاد بگیریم. Fiction می تواند انواع و اقسام مختلفی داشته باشد. برای مثال می تواند حالت واقعی داشته باشد. یعنی خالق فضایی را خلق کرده اما آن فضا یک فضای واقعی و حقیقی است. یا اینکه فضایی که خلق شده فانتزی است و نمی تواند در دنیای واقعی ای که ما در آن زندگی می کنیم به وقوع بپیوندد. در هر حال هر دوی این فضاها می تواند برای افراد جذاب باشد و باعث شود افراد آن ها را مطالعه کنند.
در ادامه برای شما چندین تمرین آورده ایم، این تمرین ها را انجام بدهید.
Fiction and Nonfiction | Exercise 01
This story was written in 1933 by the famous American author Ernest Hemingway. The definition
for some words are given at the bottom of each page. These will help you follow the story better.
You do not need to learn these words.
- Look at the picture and read the tide. What do you think this story is about?
- Do you know anything about the author, Ernest Hemingway?
- Read the story to the end. Don’t stop to look up new words.
Fiction and Nonfiction | Exercise 01 | Story: A Day’s Wait (pg 1/9)
He came into the room to shut the windows while we were still in bed, and I saw he looked ill. He was shivering,
his face was white, and he walked slowly as though it ached to move.
“What’s the matter, Schatz?”
“I’ve got a headache.”
“You better go back to bed.”
“No. I’m all right.”
“You go to bed. I’ll see you when I’m dressed.”
But when I came downstairs he was dressed, sitting by the fire, looking a very 10 sick and miserable boy of nine
years. When I put my hand on his forehead I knew he had a fever.
Fiction and Nonfiction | Exercise 01 | Story: A Day’s Wait (pg 2/9)
“You go up to bed,” I said. “You’re sick.”
“I’m all right,” he said.
When the doctor came, he took the boy’s temperature.
“What is it?” I asked him.
“One hundred and two.”
Downstairs, the doctor left three different medicines in different colored capsules with instructions for giving
them. One was to bring down the fever, another a purgative , the third to overcome an acid condition. The germs of influenza can only exist in an acid condition, he explained. He seemed to know all about influenza and said there was nothing to worry about if the fever did not go above one hundred and four degrees. This was a light epidemic of flu and there was no danger if you avoided pneumonia.
Fiction and Nonfiction | Exercise 01 | Story: A Day’s Wait (pg 3/9)
Back in the room I wrote the boy’s temperature down and made a note of the time to give the various capsules.
“Do you want me to read to you?”
“All right. If you want to,” said the boy. His face was very white, and there were dark areas under his eyes. He lay
still in the bed and seemed very detached from what was going on.
I read aloud from Howard Pyle’s Book of Pirates, but I could see he was not following what I was reading.
“How do you feel, Schatz?” I asked him.
“Just the same, so far,” he said.
I sat at the foot of the bed and read to myself while I waited for it to be time to give him another capsule. It would
have been natural for him to go to sleep, but when I looked up he was looking at the foot of the bed, looking very strangely.
Fiction and Nonfiction | Exercise 01 | Story: A Day’s Wait (pg 4/9)
“Why don’t you try to go to sleep? I’ll wake you up for the medicine.”
“I’d rather stay awake.”
After a while he said to me, “You don’t have to stay in here with me, Papa, if it bothers you.”
“It doesn’t bother me.”
“No, I mean you don’t have to stay if it’s going to bother you.”
I thought perhaps he was a little lightheaded and after giving him the prescribed capsules at eleven o’clock I went
out for a while.
Fiction and Nonfiction | Exercise 01 | Story: A Day’s Wait (pg 5/9)
It was a bright, cold day, the ground covered with a sleet that had frozen so that it seemed as if all the bare trees, the bushes, the cut brush, and all the grass and the bare ground had been varnished with ice. I took the young Irish Setter for a little walk up the road and along a frozen creek , but it was difficult to stand or walk on the glassy surface, and the red dog slipped and slithered, and I fell twice, hard, once dropping my gun and having it slide away over the ice. We flushed a covey of quail under a high clay bank with overhanging brush, and I killed two as they went out of sight over the top of the bank.
Some of the covey lit in trees, but most of them scattered into brush piles, and it was necessary to jump on the ice-coated mounds of brush several times before they would flush. Coming out while you were poised unsteadily on the icy, springy brush, they made difficult shooting, and I killed two, missed five, and started back pleased to have found a covey close to the house and happy there were so many left to find another day. At the house, they said the boy had refused to let anyone come into the room. “You can’t come in,” he said. “You mustn’t get what I have.”
Fiction and Nonfiction | Exercise 01 | Story: A Day’s Wait (pg 6/9)
I went up to him and found him in exactly the position I had left him, white-faced, but with the tops of his cheeks
flushed by the fever, staring still, as he stared, at the foot of the bed.
I took his temperature.
“What is it?”
“Something like a hundred,” I said. It was one hundred and two and four tenths.
“It was a hundred and two,” he said.
“Who said so?”
“Your temperature is all right,” I said. “It’s nothing to worry about.”
“I don’t worry,” he said, “but I can’t keep from thinking.”
Fiction and Nonfiction | Exercise 01 | Story: A Day’s Wait (pg 7/9)
“Don’t think,” I said. “Just take it easy.” “I’m taking it easy,” he said and looking straight ahead. He was evidently holding tight onto himself about something. “Take this with water.” “Do you think it will do any good?” “Of course it will.” So I sat down and opened the pirate book and commenced to read, but I could see he was not following, so I stopped. “About what time do you think I’m going to die?” he asked. “What?” “About how long will it be before I die?” “You aren’t going to die. What’s the matter with you?”
Fiction and Nonfiction | Exercise 01 | Story: A Day’s Wait (pg 8/9)
“Oh, yes, I am. I heard him say a hundred and two.”
“People don’t die with a fever of one hundred and two. That’s a silly way to talk.”
“I know they do. At school in France the boys told me you can’t live with 90 forty-four degrees. I’ve got a hundred
He had been waiting to die all day, ever since nine o’clock in the morning. “You poor Schatz,” I said. “Poor old
Schatz. It’s like miles and kilometers.
You aren’t going to die. That’s a different thermometer. On that thermometer thirty-seven is normal. On this kind
“Are you sure?”
“Absolutely,” I said. “It’s like miles and kilometers. You know, like how many kilometers we make when we do
seventy miles in the car?”
Fiction and Nonfiction | Exercise 01 | Story: A Day’s Wait (pg 9/9)
“Oh,” he said.
But his gaze at the foot of the bed relaxed slowly. The hold over himself 100 relaxed too, finally, and the next day it
was very slack , and he cried easily at little things that were of no importance.
Fiction and Nonfiction | Exercise 01 | Story: A Day’s Wait
- Read the story again. Underline any new words you need to know to understand the story. Show the
words to your teacher. If your teacher agrees, look them up and write the meanings In the margins.
- Discuss these questions with another student:
- Where does the story take place? Who are the people in it, and what happens to them?
- Did you like the story? Why or why not?
- What do you think about the doctor’s cure for the flu? What do you do when you have the flu?
- Hemingway often wrote about hunting. Why do you think he wrote about hunting in this story? What do
you think about hunting?
- Why was the boy confused? Have you ever had a similar misunderstanding?
Fiction and Nonfiction | Exercise 01 | Story: A Day’s Wait
- With another pair of students, retell the story from beginning to end. Try to use your own words. (You can
look back at the story.)
- Choose five words you want to learn from the story. Write them in your vocabulary notebook with the
parts of speech, the definitions, and the sentences where you found them. (See Vocabulary Building, Unit 1.)
تعریف Nonfictional در مبحث عادت به مطالعه آزاد
Nonfiction یعنی داستان، رخداد یا مطالبی در رابطه با آدم ها، اماکن و اتفاقات واقعی. مثلا موضوع مورد مطالعه ی ما تاریخی، علمی، روان شناسی یا راجع به سفرهای شخص خاصی است یا می تواند راجع به طبیعت یا بایو گرافی کسی باشد. در این نوع نوشته ها معمولا Fact داریم واقعیت را دریافت می کنیم که چه چیزی درست بوده یا هست و برعکس.
در ادامه چندین تمرین Nonfictional برای شما آورده ایم. این تمرین ها را انجام بدهید!
Fiction and Nonfiction | Exercise 01 | Story: The black Death
Read and discuss the following nonfiction story.
- Read the tide. What do you think this passage is about?
- What do you know about the Middle Ages in Europe? What do you know about the plague (disease that
causes death and spreads quickly to a large number of people)?
- Read the passage to the end. Don’t stop to look up new words.
Fiction and Nonfiction | Exercise 01 | Story: The black Death (pg 1/6)
The Black Death was the name people gave to a terrible disease called the bubonic plague. It lasted for two years
in Europe, from 1347 to 1349. In those two years, twenty-five million people died. That was one third of all Europeans, or one out of every three people. Whole families disappeared. Farms and villages were left empty.
Cities came to a stop. Churches, universities, banks, and shops closed. How did this happen?
Life in Europe in the Middle Ages was very different from life today. In 1300, there were no cars or trains. People walked, rode horses, or traveled in boats.
There were no machines to help farmers or to make clothes. There were few factories. People made most of the things they needed by hand: clothing, shoes, food, tools. There were no printed books or newspapers. And of course, there was no telephone, Internet, or television. The news traveled from one person to another by wordof-mouth. And it was usually bad news. Violence was a part of everyday life. There were wars that went on for years and years. Robberies and is murders were common. People often died young from accidents or illness.
In those days, most Europeans lived in small villages. But the cities were growing. In the early 1300s, the weather was colder and wetter than usual.
Fiction and Nonfiction | Exercise 01 | Story: The black Death (pg 2/6)
Because of this bad weather, farmers often couldn’t grow enough food for their families. Many country people didn’t have enough to eat, so they went to the 20 cities. The cities became more crowded and unhealthy. In fact, they weren’t very pleasant places. The rich people had big, beautiful houses. But everyone else lived in dark, crowded little houses. No one, rich or poor, had running water or toilets. All the waste was thrown into the streets or rivers. This was one reason why the plague spread so easily. This disease was caused by bacteria. The waste from sick people’s homes was full of these bacteria. Soon the streets and rivers and drinking water became very unhealthy. Many people got sick from drinking the dirty water. Others got sick from the waste in the streets— and because of the rats. There were many rats, and they ran freely through the streets, in and out of houses. People then didn’t understand that rats were part of the reason for the plague. The bacteria that cause the disease were carried on fleas that lived on rats.
Fiction and Nonfiction | Exercise 01 | Story: The black Death (pg 3/6)
The plague started in China in the early 1200s. Today diseases move quickly from one part of the world to another.In the Middle Ages, diseases—like people—traveled more slowly. It took about twenty years for the plague to move west from China. At that time, rich Europeans liked to buy silks and spices from Asia. Traders could make a lot of money from these things, so they took long trips to get them. Sometimes they went over land, sometimes by sea. That was how the rats that carried the disease probably traveled—by ship. By 1347, the plague had reached the countries around the Black Sea in eastern Europe.
In October of that year, an Italian ship stopped at a Black Sea town and picked up the disease. By the time the ship arrived at Messina in Sicily (Italy), many sailors were dead. A few days later, people in Messina were sick, too. They sent the ship away, but it was too late. The plague had arrived in Italy. For two years after that—village by village, town by town—the disease spread north through Europe. By the end of the year 1349, it had spread as far as Scotland and Norway. Only one part of Europe (central Poland and Lithuania): stayed free of the disease. No one knows why.
Fiction and Nonfiction | Exercise 01 | Story: The black Death (pg 4/6)
What happened when the plague arrived in a town? People got sick and so died—fast. Italian writer Giovanni Boccaccio wrote about the plague in Florence, Italy. “How many men and women had breakfast with their families, and the same night, had dinner with their ancestors5 in the next world!” Not everyone died the same day, but most people died within three days. And it was a horrible death. The first signs were black lumps6 around the neck and other places. That’s why it was called the Black Death. Then, there was high fever and blood—and that was the end. No one understood what was happening or why.
Many people thought it was a punishment sent by God. Some doctors in Paris thought it was caused by the planets and the stars. Other doctors believed it was caused by a bad smell. (Cities with the plague smelled horrible.) They told people to keep flowers and use perfume. Some people thought they could keep away the disease with loud noises, so they rang church bells and fired guns.
None of these cures7 helped, of course. There was no cure in those days. There was no way to help a sick person. People were terrified. Some stayed in their homes and didn’t let anyone in. But the fleas and rats went in and out, and so did the disease. Other people ran away from the dries and into the country. The countryside was probably healthier than the city, but these people often brought the disease with them, and they helped to spread it.
(Fiction and Nonfiction | Exercise 01 | Story: The black Death (pg 5/6
In some towns in Germany and France, people also got angry. They wanted to find someone to blame for the plague, so they blamed the Jews. They said die Jews had put poison in the water. Angry groups of people went to the Jewish neighborhoods. They set fire to houses and killed whole families. In Strasbourg in 1349,200 Jews were burned to death. In those years, many Jews moved east, to Poland and Lithuania. The disease died down in 1349, but it didn’t disappear completely. It came back many rimes in Europe, though it never again spread so far so fast. The last big outbreak8 was the Great Plague of London in 1665, when about 100,000 people died. After that there were smaller outbreaks in Marseilles, Vienna, Moscow, and other cities, until the early 18th century.
In other parts of the world, however, the plague continued to be a problem. Between 1855 and 1929, outbreaks of the plague killed over 12 million people in India and China. Even now, the plague is still present in some countries, for example, Madagascar, Tanzania, Brazil, Peru, Myanmar, and Vietnam. Every year around the world, several thousand people get the plague, and several hundreds of 85 them die.
Fiction and Nonfiction | Exercise 01 | Story: The black Death (pg 6/6)
Could a new outbreak of the Black Death kill millions of people today? Probably not. Now we understand how the disease is carried and we can stop it from spreading. We can also cure it with modem medicines. However, another disease could still be a problem. Even today, new diseases can suddenly appear. Then scientists and doctors have to .work fast to understand it and find a cure
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