The Sequence Pattern
در این مقاله اکسیری می خواهیم در مورد الگوی Sequence در پاراگراف نویسی زبان انگلیسی صحبت کنیم. الگوی Sequence دو حالت دارد: Series of events و Steps in a process.
Series of events یعنی یکسری اتفاق پشت سرهم: قاعدتا در این مورد زمان فاکتور مهمی است.
در این الگو نویسنده یک Main Idea دارد که نویسنده بیان می کند که قصد دارد در این پاراگراف برای شما یکسری اتفاق یا مرحله را که شبیه یک پروسه یا فرآیند است برای شما بیاورد.
معمولا بخش Main Idea شامل این کلمات است:
- Key word/phrases in the main idea: began, account, story, process, history, sequence.
و در پروسه این کلمات کاربرد دارد:
- Signal words/phrases: first, second, then, next, after, while, since, then, soon, finally, at last, in 1965, last June, later, over time, the next step, the following week.
پاراگراف زیر را مدنظر قرار دهید:
Close-up study of the planet Mars began when rockets were developed that could send scientific instruments into space. In 1965, the first observations of Mars were done by the American spacecraft Mariner 4, which flew near the planet to collect data and take photographs. Four years later, more data and photographs were collected by Mariners 6 and 7 as they flew past the planet.
Then, in 1971, Mariner 9 actually went into orbit around Mars, and during the following eleven months, sent back more than 7,000 images before contact with the spacecraft was lost. The next major step, in 1976, was the landing of two Viking crafts on two different areas of Mars’ surface. These landers were able to send hack important data about the atmosphere of the planet.
همانطور که می بینید موضوع اصلی سیاره مریخ است.
Topic: Close-up study of Mars
Main idea: Close-up study of Mars began when rockets were developed that could send probes into space.
Key word in the main idea: began
یکی از سیگنال های الگوی Sequence، بیان بازه زمانی است.
- In 1965 (The first spacecraft flew near the planet)
- Four years later (More photographs were collected of the planet)
- Then, in 1971 (Mariner 9 orbited Mars)
- during the following eleven months (It sent back more than 7,000 images.)
- The next major step, in 1976 (The landing of two Viking crafts on Mars’ surface136)
حالت دوم الگوی Sequence
به سراغ حالت دوم الگوی Sequence یعنی Steps in a process می رویم. این حالت اشاره مستقیم به مراحل دارد.
همانطور که در رایتینگ تسک 1 آکادمیک وجود دارد، یک پروسه توضیح داده می شود که یک ورودی تبدیل به یک خروجی شود و معمولا یک محصول به وجود می آید.
به پاراگراف زیر دقت کنید:
Not all stars are the same age, so it is possible to see stars at every stage of their life cycle. From their observations, astrophysicists can explain the process of the formation of a star. A star begins life inside a nebula, a huge cloud of gas and dust in outer space. Over time, the force of gravity pulls some of the gas and dust together to form into clumps. Then the temperature inside the nebula begins to rise.
Next, several clumps come together and become denser and hotter, and they form a protostar (an early form of a star). After that, the protostar continues to grow until it has become about as large as our Sun. At that point, nuclear reactions begin to occur in its core (center), and these reactions send energy to the surface of the protostar. Finally, the energy escapes as heat and light and a new star begins to shine.
پس این پاراگراف می خواهد در مورد پروسه تشکیل یک ستاره صحبت کند.
Topic: The process of the formation of a star
Main idea: A star is formed in a process during which clumps of gas and dust form a protostar that becomes large and hot.
Key word in the main idea: process
- begins (In a cloud of dust and gas in outer space)
- Over time (Gravity makes clumps of dust and gas)
- Then (The temperature begins to rise.)
- Next (Several clumps form a protostar)
- After that (The protostar grows larger.)
- At that point (Nuclear reactions send energy to the surface.)
- Finally (A new star begins to shine.)
حال که با انواع Sequence آشنا شدید، دو پاراگراف با دو حالت ذکر شده بنویسید.