The Comparison-Contrast Pattern



در این مقاله اکسیری میخواهیم الگوی Comparison-Contrast را در پاراگراف نویسی زبان انگلیسی معرفی کنیم. در این الگو  یکسری آیتم با یکدیگر مقایسه می‌شوند. این آیتم ها در کنار یا مقابل همدیگر قرار می گیرند و به تفاوت ها و شباهت های آن ها اشاره می شود.

الگوی Comparison-Contrast


الگوی Comparison-Contrast سه حالت دارد:

  1. Similarity only
  2. Similarity and difference
  3. Difference only


دسته سوم معمولا Contrast هستند. در جایی که Compare وجود دارد ممکن است Similarityهم ذکر کنیم. اما نویسنده قطعا در Main Idea به این موضوع اشاره می کند که پاراگراف قرار است به هر دو اشاره کند یا فقط Difference ها را بگوید. یا شاید فقط Similarity بگوید که البته این حالت زیاد متداول نیست. 


    • Key words/phrases in the main idea: similarities, differences, both, in common, same, different, compare, comparison.
    • Signal words/phrases for similarities: similarly, also, in the same way, as, like, both, in common.
  • Signal words/phrases for differences: however, but, on the other hand, although, while, in contrast, than, conversely, yet, unlike.



به سراغ پاراگرافی می رویم که الگوی آن Similarity and Difference است. به این پاراگراف توجه کنید:


Astronomy and astrology are similar in some ways, but they differ in a very important way. In both fields, the experts study planetary motion and constellations (groups of stars), and they use telescopes, tables, and charts to do their work. However, astronomers study the heavenly bodies as a science, and over the years people have used astronomy to discover more about the universe. Astrologers, on the other hand, use their knowledge of the heavenly bodies to advise people about their life situations. This is not science, but a belief that what happens in our lives is affected by the positions of the moon, sun, and planets.

Topic: Astronomy and astrology

Main idea: Astronomy and astrology are similar in some ways, but they differ in an important way.

Key word in the main idea: similarities


Astronomy مطالعه ستاره ها و سیاره ها است ولی astrology حرکت و موقعیت آنها را مورد بررسی قرار می دهد.


Signal words/phrases:

  • Both (Experts study planetary motion and constellations.)
  • However (Astronomers study heavenly bodies as a science.)
  • On the other hand (Astrologers advise people about their lives.)


یک نمونه پاراگراف Difference only را بررسی می کنیم:


Earth differs greatly from its two closest neighboring planets, Venus and Mars. The Venusian and Martian atmospheres are composed almost entirely of carbon dioxide, while Earth’s atmosphere contains very little. The dominant material in our atmosphere is nitrogen (77 percent). The other major component of Earth’s atmosphere is oxygen (21 percent), a gas that is almost nonexistent on Venus and Mars. Our planet has an abundance’ of water, which covers about 70 percent of Earth’s surface and supports life on our planet. In contrast, Venus and Mars are extremely dry planets and incapable of supporting life.


  • Topic: How Earth is different from Venus and Mars
  • Main idea: The Earth differs greatly from that of its two closest neighboring planets, Venus and Mars.
  • Key word in the main idea: differs
  • Signal words/phrases:
  • While (The Venusian and Martian atmospheres are mostly carbon dioxide; Earth’s contains little.)
  • However (Our atmosphere has a lot of oxygen, there’s almost none on Venus and Mars.)
  • In contrast (Earth has lots of water; Venus and Mars are very dry.)



نوبت شماست !


در این مقاله با الگوی Comparison-Contrast در پاراگراف نویسی آشنا شدید. حالا نوبت شماست که تمرین کنید. برای تمرین دو پاراگراف بنویسید. در یکی Similarity and Difference و در دیگری Difference only را اعمال کنید.